Lathe

A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about an axis of rotation.

Computer numerical control (CNC) is a manufacturing method that automates the control, movement, and precision of machine tools through the use of preprogrammed computer software, which is embedded inside the tools. CNC is commonly used in manufacturing for machining metal and plastic parts.

Milling is a process where a milling tool cuts away the material in a rotary motion. As with drilling, this is possible with a wide array of different tools with different diameters and different hardness. Because the mill is moving, the rotational speed must be high in order to get a clean finish of the milled hole.

Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks).[1] Material is removed from the workpiece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode, or simply the tool or electrode, while the other is called the workpiece-electrode, or workpiece. The process depends upon the tool and workpiece not making physical contact. Extremely hard materials like carbides, ceramics, titanium alloys, and heat-treated tool steels that are very difficult to machine using conventional machining can be precisely machined by EDM.

Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to vaporize materials, resulting in a cut edge. While typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, it is now used by schools, small businesses, architecture, and hobbyists. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC (computer numerical control) are used to direct the laser beam to the material. A commercial laser for cutting materials uses a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused laser beam is directed at the material, which then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas,[1] leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish.

A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using an extremely high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The term abrasive jet refers specifically to the use of a mixture of water and an abrasive to cut hard materials such as metal, stone, or glass, while the terms pure waterjet and water-only cutting refer to waterjet cutting without the use of added abrasives, often used for softer materials such as wood or rubber.

Waterjet cutting is often used during the fabrication of machine parts. It is the preferred method when the materials being cut are sensitive to the high temperatures generated by other methods; examples of such materials include plastic and aluminum. Waterjet cutting is used in various industries, including mining and aerospace, for cutting, shaping, and reaming.