Surface grinding is a finishing process that uses a rotating abrasive wheel to smooth the flat surface of metallic or nonmetallic materials to give them a more refined look by removing the oxide layer and impurities on workpiece surfaces. This will also attain the desired surface for a functional purpose.

Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or by applying a chemical treatment, leaving a clean surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations).

Chemical cleaning is a method to derive surfaces and walls of equipment, pipelines, vessels, kettles, and heat exchangers of unwanted contaminants. Chemical cleaning also means the purification, conditioning, treatment, or disinfection of water.

Sandblasting, sometimes known as abrasive blasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface contaminants. A pressurized fluid, typically compressed air, or a centrifugal wheel is used to propel the blasting material (often called the media).